Electric Vehicles

sold between 2013 - 2018



the time it takes to swap EV batteries using Kandi’s Smart Battery Swap Technology


Kandi EVs

to be supplied in 5 years in the Chinese rideshare market

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The Path to Drawdown: Electric Vehicles and EV Batteries

A big part of achieving net-zero emissions is to electrify the transportation system. And a key to doing that is the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and better and cheaper batteries for EVs.

Electric Vehicles

The first electric vehicle (EV) prototype was built in the 1820s, but the challenge of building a lightweight, durable battery with adequate range led to internal combustion engines dominating the automotive and transport landscape since the 1920s.

Today, that’s changing. Owing to supportive policies and declining costs, there are millions of EVs on the road. The difference in their impact on the climate is remarkable. Compared to petroleum-based vehicles, CO2 emissions drop by 50% if an EV’s power comes from the conventional power grid. If powered by solar energy, emissions are cut by 95%. Once households purchase EVs, the operating costs for those cars are often cheaper than gas-based cars, too.

What used to be a roadbump for EVs - the problem of how far the car can travel on a single charge - is now much less of a concern. The average range of an EV produced in 2020 is about 217.5 miles, up from 124 miles in 2015.

To be on track to remain under 1.5ºC of warming, 100% of passenger cars and vans (p. 138) need to be electric by 2050. This is a leap from 5% of cars and 0% of vans in 2020, respectively. Accomplishing this overhaul of the transportation landscape would require EV production and ownership to continue expanding over the next three decades:

  • <::marker> 11 million EV cars and vans were on the road in 2020
  • <::marker> 2 billion EV cars and vans (100% of total global sales) need to be on the road by 2050
  • <::marker> This would require a CAGR of 18.94% from 2018-2050

EV Batteries

A critical factor that’s enabling the increase in EV mileage is the development in battery technology and growth in battery production capacity. The cost of batteries is falling fast as a result. The cost of lithium-ion batteries in particular -- the key technology for electrifying transport -- has declined sharply in recent years after having been developed for widespread use in consumer electronics. 

But battery production needs to continue scaling massively to keep up with the electrification of the transport sector. According to the IEA:

  • <::marker> Global manufacturing operations produced 170 GWh of batteries in 2020
  • <::marker> ~3,000 GWh battery production capacity is needed by 2030 to achieve long-term sustainability goals
  • <::marker> That’s CAGR of 33.25%

What We Want to See Improve

Increase Focus on EVs and EV Batteries

While we applaud Kandi for the above-mentioned products and opportunities, about 40% of Kandi’s revenue (p. 23) still comes from the sale of go-karts, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and other recreational off-road vehicles that run on fossil fuels. Even though emissions from these specialized vehicles are small, it’s puzzling that a company like Kandi, which has shifted its focus on EVs, still derives a large part of its revenue from internal combustion vehicles. We urge them to halt the production of these off-road vehicles and completely devote themselves to electrifying the transport sector.

Track Sustainability Metrics

Kandi has no information about their sustainability metrics or efforts. We want to see them publish an annual ESG report with a focus on direct and indirect GHG emissions, waste management, water use, and concrete plans to cut emissions by specific dates.

Diversify Customer Base and Suppliers

Kandi has two major customers that account for 38% and 78% of sales revenue (p. 4) in 2020, respectively. Kandi reports that it’s working on developing new business partners and clients to reduce its dependence on these customers. We think this is the right move, and urge them to accelerate this process.

Related Battery Stocks in the Climate Index

View All Climate Index Stocks →

Allocated Company Description


QuantumScape Corporation (QS)

QuantumScape makes solid-state lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. Their battery is lighter and charges faster, key to making EVs more attractive


Livent Corporation (LTHM)

Livent is one of the largest lithium producers in the world. Lithium is the key metal in making batteries for electric vehicles and energy storage.


Stem, Inc. (STEM)

Stem makes energy storage solutions that optimize energy use through the use of AI. Energy storage is the key to integrating more renewables into the grid


Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc. (EOSE)

Eos makes stationary batteries and energy storage systems that can make renewable power more reliable and attractive


Romeo Power, Inc. (RMO)

Romeo Power makes lithium-ion battery modules and packs for commercial EVs. High-quality batteries are critical for electrifying transportation


CBAK Energy Technology, Inc. (CBAT)

CBAK makes lithium-ion battery packs that can be used in many electric vehicles, tools and energy storage applications, a key to electrifying everything


Flux Power Holdings, Inc (FLUX)

Flux Power makes batteries for industrial forklifts and other utility vehicles. Electrifying these vehicles is a key component of solving climate change.


Kandi Technologies Group Inc. (KNDI)

Kandi Technologies mass produces entry-level EVs for Chinese consumers and quickly swaps EV batteries. Both are critical for making EVs attractive.


KULR Technology Group, Inc. (KULR)

KULR sells thermal management technologies that are used in the lithium-ion batteries to ensure they stay within safe operating temperatures.


Westwater Resources, Inc. (WWR)

Westwater Resources mines and purified graphite materials, which is a key component in battery construction. They’re helping expand energy storage

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