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Once a company makes a profit, management must decide on what to do with those profits. They could continue to retain the profits within the company, or they could pay out the profits to the owners of the firm in the form of dividends.

Once the company decides on whether to pay dividends it may establish a somewhat permanent dividend policy, which may in turn impact investors and perceptions of the company in the financial markets. What they decide depends on the situation of the company now and in the future. It also depends on the preferences of investors and potential investors.


Dividends are payments made to stockholders from a firm’s earnings, whether those earnings were generated in the current period or in previous periods.

Since there are many LLC services available to set up a corporation, it is very inexpensive to set up your own company and use dividends as a tax-efficient way to draw down business profits.

Dividends may affect the capital structure

  • Retaining earnings increases common equity relative to debt.
  • Financing with retained earnings is cheaper than issuing new common equity.

Dividend Policy and Stock Value

There are various theories that try to explain the relationship between a firm’s dividend policy and common stock value.

Dividend Irrelevance Theory

This theory purports that a firm’s dividend policy has no effect on either its value or its cost of capital. Investors value dividends and capital gains equally.

Optimal Dividend Policy

Proponents believe that there is a dividend policy that strikes a balance between current dividends and future growth that maximizes the firm’s stock price.

Dividend Relevance Theory

The value of a firm is affected by its dividend policy. The optimal dividend policy is the one that maximizes the firm’s value.

Investors and Dividend Policy

Information Content or Signaling

Signaling hypothesis says that investors regard dividend changes as signals of management’s earnings forecasts.

Clientele Effect

The clientele effect is the tendency of a firm to attract the type of investor who likes its dividend policy.

Free Cash Flow Hypothesis

All else equal, firms that pay dividends from cash flows that cannot be reinvested in positive net present value projects (free cash flows), have higher values than firms that retain free cash flows.

Dividend/Retained Earnings Decision

There are various constraints that may impact a firm’s decision to pay out earnings in the form of dividends.


  • Cash flow constraints
  • Contractual constraints
  • Legal constraints
  • Tax considerations
  • Return considerations

Types of Dividend Policies

Policy Types

  • Constant Dollar Dividend Policy
  • Constant Payout Ratio
  • Regular with Extras

Payment Procedures

Declaration Date

The Declaration Date is the date on which a firm’s board of directors issues a statement declaring a dividend.

Holder-Of-Record Date

This is the date on which the company opens the ownership books to determine who will receive the dividend.

Ex-Dividend Date

This is the date on which the right to the next dividend no longer accompanies a stock, usually two business days prior to the holder-of-record date.

Dividend Reinvestment Plan (DRIP)


A DRIP (Dividend Reinvestment Plan) is a plan that enables a stockholder to automatically reinvest dividends received back into the stock of the paying firm. The plan may either involve the firm repurchasing existing shares or it may involve newly issued shares.

Stock Dividends vs. Stock Splits

Stock Dividend

Here, the firm issues new shares in lieu of paying a cash dividend. If 10%, shareholders would get 10 shares for every 100 shares of stock owned.

Stock Split

When the board votes for a stock split, the firm increases the number of shares outstanding, say 2:1.

This overview was developed by Dr. Sharon Garrison.
No adaptation of its content is permitted without permission.



1. What is a dividend policy?

A dividend policy is a set of guidelines adopted by a company's board of directors that governs how much money will be paid out to shareholders in the form of dividends.

2. What are the types of dividend policies?

There are three main types of dividend policies: constant dollar dividend policy, constant payout ratio, and regular with extras.

3. What is the importance of dividend policy?

A dividend policy is important because it can impact the value of a company's stock. For example, if a company has a dividend policy that results in a high payout ratio, it may not have enough cash left to reinvest in new and profitable projects, which could lead to a decrease in the stock's value. Another important aspect of dividend policy is its signaling function. Dividend changes can send signals to investors about a company's earnings forecasts and management's attitude toward shareholder value.

4. What is included in a dividend policy?

The components of a dividend policy typically include the percentage of profits a company plans to pay out in dividends, the frequency of dividend payments, and the method by which shareholders will be paid their dividends (e.g. cash or stock).

5. What are the limitations of a dividend policy?

There are several limitations to consider when drafting a dividend policy. For example, a company's cash flow constraints and contractual obligations may impact its ability to pay out dividends. Additionally, dividend policies must comply with applicable laws and regulations. Finally, a company's stock price and financial condition may also influence its ability to pay dividends.

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